What is the difference between a mountain bike and a classical city bike? I'm talking about the anatomy of the bike, of course.
a city ike can't go the rough terrain in the woods but a mountain bike can.
Amountain bike has a bigger,heavier frame and wider wheels and tires. It is more all purpose for city or off road travel
Mountain-bikes have wider and thiker tires that enable them to pass difficult terrain, but also slow them down. Their body is rougher, which also means they are heavier than city-bikes = reduced speed and you use more energy to get them going... Some more sophisticated mountain-bikes have shock-observers and springs in their body, similar to 4x4 cars.
A hybrid is a mix between a mountain bike, and a road bike. Generally, they have mountain bike handlebars(straight, not curled down), fatter tires than road tires, mountain bike wheel sizes, and a more upright position compared to road bikes, and sometimes they have a small front suspension. They are more similar to road bikes in that they usually have closer to road bike gearing, lighter, and designed for a little more speed compared to a mountain bike. An XC mountain bike is a lightweight mountain bike, designed for longer trail use, uphill and downhill. It has a moderate front suspension, sometimes a rear suspension(for much more money, you probably don't need a rear suspension). They have straight handlebars, and either rim or disc(more $$$) brakes. They have gearing designed to cover almost all conditions, from the steepest of uphills, to fast paces descents.
Mountain bikes have gears that you can change so when your going up a hill all you have to do is switch it to gear one an its easier to pedal up a hill. The cranks are higher up off of the ground for more clearance. Many have some sort of sprung suspension, either at the front or at the front and rear. City bikes have street tires so you can just ride around town.
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