Some galaxies in the Local Group actually ...

Some galaxies in the Local Group actually exhibit somewhat blue-shifted spectral lines. Why aren't these blueshifts violations of the "Hubble Law"?

  1. A. The earth is near the center of the universe, at the bottom of a deep gravitational well. Relativistic effects result in the incoming light from other galaxies being blueshifted.
  2. B. Since dark matter is only found in the local group galaxies, this effect is probably a result of a poorly understood interaction with dark matter.
  3. C. The Hubble Law only applies to galaxies that are not gravitationally bound to the Milky Way. The galaxies in the Local Group are gravitationally bound to orbit a common center of mass, and so those whose orbits cause them to move towards us naturally show slight blueshifts.

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C if "local" galaxies moving towards us. It is not explainable by gravity yet.

D if nearby galaxies rotate and one part of the galaxy move toward us while the other part flee with a red shift from us.

There are other causes of spectral shifts possible. Look at .


There is no better guide through darkness then your own balance

"Big Bang" cosmology is in no danger of discredit, let me say before anything else.  However, note also that about 1/4 of the known galaxies exhibit some blue shift, because they are moving toward us (e.g. Andromeda, M-31). 

No one ever implied that galaxies sit still.  They move around, some this way and some that.  However, the outside of our present universe expands at C (defining the speed of light) and Universal Central Point (believed in Sagittarius) sits still as the ONE stationary object in our universe.

The case is abundantly clear that the universe is expanding.  Hence, it also started out as a singularity, which had no physical existence before it was created.

There was quite a ruckus about that as a discredited atheist named Hoyle went into a blind and completely undisciplined panic as he saw his religion (atheism) about to find utter scientific discredit.  Hoyle coined the term, "Big Bang" as a derision to shy people away from Hubbell's well studied work.

Guess what: atheism lost again, and will always continue to lose, because there is absolutely not one tiny scrap of information that could possibly support atheism or atheists.  And there never can be.


Even light will bend to do our bidding if we apply force correctly. The lowest servant in Heaven is still in Heaven, whoever rules in hell is still in hell, but they won't rule for long. No man stands taller than when he stoops to help a little child.

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