Usually, the dentist will do a manual check on the teeth. Then he will take x-rays so that he can see things that he cannot see manually. Lastly, he will give you a good cleaning!
If there are any problems such as cavities, he will tell you to make an appt to see him again. If everything is ok, he will tell you "see you next year for another cleaning and another check up. (Or, he might tell you "see you in six months for another check up and cleaning")
The cleaning will consist of using an instrument to get into the gum area to clean out any food. He will also use floss to get between the teeth. Then comes the flouride which is a sort of paste that is rubbed on your teeth. You rinse, and sustain for drinking or eating for 30 minutes.